Other post-secondary institutions are accredited and quality controlled by the Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Academic and Vocational Qualifications (HKCAAVQ). The offerings of these providers span more than 200 different majors, with engineering and management being the most popular fields of study, according to government statistics from 2018. In addition, there are so-called Sino-foreign cooperative schools that teach both international and Chinese curricula. International schools traditionally catered exclusively to expats. Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are licensed professions of equal standing in China. Vocational education is offered at both the upper-secondary (9+3) and post-secondary levels under the purview of the Vocational Training Council. Under the current evaluation scheme, HEIs are assessed in three categories: pass, deferred pass, and not passed. It also issues verification reports for high school graduation certificates, as well as gaokao, huikao, and APT results. In other jurisdictions, the reforms will not be rolled out before 2022. However, this number is difficult to compare with other data sources, such as UNESCO, which counts only tertiary degree-seeking students and doesn’t report numbers for China. Another way to earn zhuanke and benke qualifications is through self-learning. China now spends more on research and development than the countries that make up the entire European Union combined, and it is soon expected to overtake the U.S. in research expenditures as well. Australia’s government, for instance, felt compelled to establish a National Code of Practice for Providers of Education and Training to rein in corrupt agents, fraud, substandard admission standards, and questionable recruitment practices by education providers seeking to cash in on the boom in international student mobility from China, India, and elsewhere. The result was a high degree of specialization and lack of cross-fertilization between the disciplines. The three mandatory subjects—Chinese, mathematics, and English—may be factored into grade averages as weighted subjects of greater value. The language of instruction is Mandarin Chinese with the exception of the primary schools that mainly admit ethnic minority students. But in contemporary China, English is much more than just a required subject in schools. The standard five-year curriculum in Western medicine includes general science courses and basic medicine courses in the first two years, while clinical medicine is introduced in the third and fourth years, before students complete a clinical internship in the final year. However, only students from select top-performing high schools are eligible for this type of independent recruitment. Another popular option is the 4+0 model under which students complete all four years in China. These provincial-level divisions are further subdivided into thousands of counties, cities, and townships. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the country established a highly centralized system of education steered by China’s one-party state. As noted before, applicants to vocational colleges can be admitted via a separate examination without taking the gaokao. It also gathers statistical data on HEIs and maintains a database on academic institutions approved to offer benke and zhuanke programs. In Australia, for instance, 30 percent of all international students were Chinese nationals in 2017. These dual-track joint venture upper-secondary programs often require the zhongkao for admission and enable students to sit for the APT exams, and subsequently the gaokao. The imperial education and examination system developed, as a meritocratic means to train and select civil servants, by some reckonings as early as the Han dynasty (206 BCE to 220 CE). Administered at the provincial level in China are more than 1,400 non-degree-granting vocational colleges. But it’s also the rising political tensions and trade war between the U.S. and China, as well as new visa restrictions imposed by the Trump administration, that drive the slowdown. China’s rapid social changes had an enormous global impact on international education. While China officially recognizes 55 ethnic minorities, the Uyghur language was recently banned as a language of instruction in parts of Xinjiang province. As a rule of thumb, the country’s best and most generously funded universities are located in Beijing, Shanghai, and the great cities of eastern China, and all of them are public. The geopolitical conflict ripples through U.S. higher education in several ways. As the Wall Street Journal describes it, the test can have life-altering consequences for Chinese students: “There are minimum gaokao levels required to attend [most] of China’s … colleges, and only about two-thirds as many available admissions slots as test takers. Western critics contend, however, that generous funding by itself is not enough to elevate Chinese HEIs, and that greater academic freedoms and university autonomy will be needed to establish true world-class universities in the country. All institutions must be accredited in their home country and have faculty recruitment practices and admission requirements comparable to those in their home countries, even though Chinese applicants are typically admitted based on the gaokao. Chinese schools use different grading scales independent of the APT scale, the two most common of which are the 0-100 and 0-150 scales shown below. CAB Direct provides The speed of China’s emergence as one of the world’s most important countries in international education has been nothing short of phenomenal. Bachelor’s programs in standard academic disciplines normally require four years of full-time study, whereas degrees in professional fields such as architecture, medicine, and a few engineering programs require five years of study. Under the direct control of the MOE in Beijing, the OUC was established in the 1970s as a radio and TV university to expand access to education. Renmin University, for instance, was barred from admitting students through its own autonomous admissions process. It also announced that universities can no longer admit students who are enrolled in a bachelor’s degree program into a second bachelor’s degree program: further study must represent vertical rather than horizontal progression. The criteria the HEEC takes into consideration when evaluating HEIs include the mission statement, uniqueness and social contributions of the institution, student-to-teacher ratios, the level of education of teaching staff, curricular design, infrastructure, budgeting, growth strategies, the strength of internal QA mechanisms and student services, employment outcomes of graduates, and student feedback, as well as the provision of sufficient physical education and ideological education. Top schools in this category charge tuition fees of up to USD$40,000 a year. A school teaching the Canadian curriculum lost its license in 2016 after it was reported that “students were paying as much as $1,100 to retake exams and inflate grades, allowing underperforming students easier access to Ontario schools.”. Amid the massification of Chinese higher education, the Chinese government has since the 1990s issued a series of policy directives to strengthen the quality control of the rapidly growing number of HEIs in the country. Many programs are taught in English or another foreign language and delivered in a 2+2, 1+3, or 3+1 format, a formula which specifies how many years students spend in China before continuing their studies at the foreign partner institution. Since the early 2000s, the CDGDC has also evaluated graduate programs in specific academic disciplines of national priority to provide a comparative ranking of institutions that offer programs in these disciplines. Discover the world's research. The MOE sets curricula and learning outcomes for programs in 19 broad subject categories, such as agriculture, finance and commerce, medicine, tourism, or transportation. On the other side of the spectrum, top institutions are permitted to administer their own written examinations or conduct interviews in addition to the gaokao. To obtain a high school diploma, students must meet a minimum requirement of 144 credits and also pass a national graduation examination. These institutions are private colleges affiliated with public universities that have more autonomy than other colleges in matters like admissions requirements. Students who completed the coursework component may be awarded the graduation certificate or certificate of completion of coursework, but no degree certificate. There is no junior high school graduation examination. It encompasses moral education, Chinese language and literature, mathematics, art and music, and physical education. This university system currently enrolls about 3.6 million students in various programs that range from undergraduate degree programs to vocational certificate programs, teacher training programs, and a multitude of continuing education programs. Big and prestigious research institutes like the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences are public research universities that are among China’s tier-one institutions. Consider that in the mid-1980s fewer than two million students sat for the gaokao, and that the overall admissions rate was only 23 percent in 1990. Other students view an international education as an option to better their employment prospects on the competitive Chinese labor market, where a foreign degree was long a golden ticket to well-paid jobs. A semester consists of 18 weeks of classroom-type instruction followed by a two-week period dedicated to examinations. This includes stand-alone institutions operated as joint ventures with Chinese partner institutions, as well as transnational partnerships at the faculty level, or secondary international colleges attached to accredited Chinese institutions. The People’s Republic of China is administratively divided into 23 provinces, four municipalities that have the same standing as provinces (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing), five autonomous regions (including Tibet and Xinjiang), and two specially administered regions (Hong Kong and Macau). However, while the number of Chinese students in the U.S. increased by 1.7 percent in 2019, the growth rate of enrollments has slowed noticeably in recent years. It is taken during primary and secondary education and encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting to promote health.. However, this directive was “fine-tuned” in 2009 to allow more schools to teach more subjects in English, so as not to jeopardize Hong Kong’s status as an international business hub and financial center. China has a heterogenous higher education system with no fewer than 2,956 HEIs. Accounts of stricter vetting and denials of Chinese nationals’ student visa applications have already become increasingly common. Upon completion of the program, students are awarded both a graduation certificate (biye zhengshu) and a bachelor’s degree certificate (xueshixuewei zhengshu). After piloting different forms of evaluation schemes in the 1990s, the MOE in 2002 mandated  that HEIs which offer undergraduate programs undergo periodic external assessment in five-year evaluation cycles and proceeded to evaluate 589 institutions in a first round of quality assessments between 2003 and 2008. Forty percent of Chinese students are enrolled in undergraduate programs, 36 percent in graduate programs, and close to 5 percent in non-degree programs; 19 percent pursue Optional Practical Training. In response to such concerns, the Canadian government recently announced a new internationalization strategy that seeks to diversify Canada’s international student body. China’s Compulsory Education Law stipulates that all children must complete nine years of compulsory education, starting at the age of six or, at the latest, seven. However, there are big differences in examination and scoring practices in some jurisdictions, so that the gaokao results in different provinces are difficult to compare directly. Under Xi Jinping, this “ideological guidance” of universities has increased significantly. What’s more, China’s top universities now provide education of increasingly high quality. Junior secondary teachers, on the other hand, are trained in two- to thee-year post-secondary zhuanke programs at normal colleges (junior colleges) that typically require the gaokao for admission. Until 1988, China also used standardized syllabi and centrally-issued textbooks. While some private institutions have seen enrollment declines in recent years and the private sector is presently characterized by a flurry of mergers and acquisitions, further growth of private higher education is expected in China in the years ahead. There are currently 1,388 post-secondary institutions in China that offer non-degree programs, compared with 1,242 degree-granting institutions. In addition, there are “spare-time universities” that provide face-to-face instruction in part-time mode, such as evening classes. Continuing to use www.cabdirect.org The departments of education of the provinces approve the establishment of HEIs and monitor their performance. For example, in 2018 the U.S. government shortened the length of student visas for Chinese graduate students in aviation, robotics, and advanced manufacturing from five years to one year, citing concerns about intellectual property theft and Chinese espionage. Except for international schools that teach foreign curricula, Chinese schools follow the national curriculum. In another survey, 52 percent of Chinese students agreed that “not being able to obtain a job in the United States postgraduation would prevent them from pursuing business school there.” That said, an equally important factor are fears related to gun violence and the highly televised mass shootings in the U.S.—an issue that ranks high in many surveys of Chinese students. While rising fast, average income levels in China are still comparable to those of Cuba or the Dominican Republic. Utmost significance is attached to learning English since English proficiency improves students’ chances for university admissions worldwide and enhances their prospects for career advancement, particularly against the backdrop of China’s rise as a global economic power. A former Portuguese colony, and then a “territory under Portuguese administration” for much of the 20th century, Macau long had a less developed education system. By some accounts, “Chinese students make up nearly two-thirds of the international student body at the University of Toronto, more than one-third at the University of British Columbia and almost one-fourth at McGill University.” Notably, however, China is no longer the top sending country since there are now more Indian students in Canada than Chinese. About 17 percent of all international students in China now come from African countries. Graduates receive only a degree certificate. Students in these types of schools earn only a Chinese high school qualification. The qualifications required for teaching in Chinese schools vary by level. In 2019, the government then put forward a comprehensive National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan. There’s now an entire industry of schools that directly prepare students for an overseas education, many of them using English as the medium of instruction or bilingual curricula. The CCP has come to view private providers as a key mechanism for addressing the mass demand for education. Physical Education Curriculum 1 Physical Education Philosophy Lifetime fitness through fun, safe physical activity is the overall goal of the physical education program with the Juneau School District. Given these differences, a four-year bachelor’s degree may require anywhere between 130 and 170 credit units to complete. This review examines the changes in the Physical Education curriculum, and subsequently, the state and status of PE in South African schools. Within two decades, from 1998 to 2017, the number of Chinese students enrolled in degree programs abroad jumped by 590 percent to more than 900,000, making China the largest sending country of international students worldwide by far, according to UNESCO statistics. These changes usually followed major political and social movements and involved the development and implementation of new curriculum guidelines in the form of teaching syllabi or curriculum standards for all school subjects (Ruan and Jin, 2012). Being among the 8.5 percent of test takers who score high enough to qualify for one of China’s … tier-one universities, means reasonable assurance of eventual high-paying white-collar employment, thereby securing a stable financial future.”. However, there are now also more and more Chinese-owned schools authorized to offer international curricula for local Chinese children; 58 percent of the 359,000 students enrolled in international schools in China are currently Chinese nationals. In this sense, the streaming concept largely predetermined which type of university programs graduates entered. For example, Shanghai, Hainan province and Jiangxi province currently have different maximum scores (660, 940, and 480, respectively). In 2016, the Chinese government even opted to threaten cheaters with up to seven years of jail time. Bachelor’s degree programs in Hong Kong were three, or in some cases, four or five years in length. It directly oversees. However, several provinces are currently replacing the tier system with a more elastic approach that will allow for greater flexibility and different quotas from institution to institution. A large number of U.S. students in China are enrolled in short-term study abroad programs at the undergraduate level. At worst, it means dropping the dream of college and taking a low-paying, dead-end manufacturing or service job, or turning to a junior college to learn basic vocational skills. The BBC reported in 2016 that one new university opened its doors in China each week. Lastly, private and public Chinese schools may incorporate elements of foreign curricula into the standard Chinese curriculum without being recognized by overseas authorities. Ethnic minority students or athletes may be awarded extra points to facilitate their admission. While the 3+x core subjects are examined at the end of grade 12, students can sit for examinations in the other subjects earlier and take the exam in parts, once they complete the necessary credit requirements in specific subjects. Likewise, Beijing in 2018 terminated 229 TNE agreements, citing quality considerations, to “replace the old with the new, optimized, and upgraded.” This was, however, followed by the approval of more than 30 new joint degree programs in 2019. Graduates earn two certificates, hence the name: a graduation certificate and a degree certificate (shuoshi xuewei zhengshu). Equally notable, the secondary education cycle was shortened from seven to six years, so that Hong Kong now has a 12-year system (6+6) rather than the previous 13-year system (6+5+2). According to the 2016 amended version of the law, these schools need to be licensed and comply with official regulations. The academic calendar in both schools and universities runs from September to July. One credit unit is usually defined as anywhere between 16 to 20 hours of classroom instruction per semester, depending on the institution, but there are a variety of divergent practices. The scale of these proportions has raised alarms about financial risks due to an overreliance on tuition fees from Chinese students. See the latest WES research report for the published findings of the survey. Amid teacher shortages in these regions, the MOE in 2006 launched a program that recruited university graduates from non-teacher training programs to teach in disadvantaged regions for three years. While current economic growth rates still exceed 6 percent, any economic slowdown with negative implications for employment is of great concern to the CCP, whose political legitimacy largely rests on delivering increased economic prosperity. Once the gaokao results are in, admission thresholds are set based on the results; these vary by year and institution. For one, many Chinese view an international education as a means of expanding their academic horizons, gaining intercultural skills, and obtaining a top education. Teacher salaries in cities like Shanghai and in developed coastal provinces are relatively high, so that these regions attract large numbers of teachers, while recruitment is more difficult in rural areas, where salaries are lower. This may be the case if students don’t have a high enough GPA in core subjects or if they failed the CET. Because of the legacy of Portuguese colonialism, more than 30 percent of elementary and secondary schools in Macau are Catholic schools, despite only about 5 percent of the population identifying as Catholic Christians. According to government statistics, there were 492,185 international students from 196 countries in China in 2018—a remarkably high number globally. The constant stream of negative news has exacerbated the growing worries about the wisdom of the U.S. as a study destination.”. Macau is a much smaller territory than Hong Kong with a population of only 672,000 people. There are three times more Chinese students enrolled internationally than students from India, the second-largest sending country. The largest group of them is South Koreans, many of which are said to study in China to get an edge on the Korean labor market, seeing that China is South Korea’s largest trading partner. Said to be one of the most demanding exams in the world, success on the gaokao is of paramount importance for students’ future career and income prospects. Before graduation, students in non-English majors sit for the College English Test (CET) to evaluate their English skills. Further penalties may technically be imposed if institutions again fail to pass the assessment the second time around. (See also the section on university admissions.) To boost research output, Chinese academics are incentivized with cash rewards to publish in academic journals—a system that is not unique to China but which has been taken to extremes by Chinese universities. By some estimates, the number of urban middle-class households in China—defined as those earning between USD$9,000 and USD$34,000 a year—will increase from just 4 percent in 2000 to 76 percent, or more than 550 million people, by 2022. No other country in history underwent a more rapid and large-scale process of industrialization than China—an enormous transformation that within decades turned the country from an impoverished agricultural society into an industrial manufacturing powerhouse. A report by the White House Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy accused the Chinese government of infiltrating U.S. companies and university campuses to  transfer technology, intellectual property and know-how. This focus on examinations encourages a disciplined, top-down learning style that relies mostly on rote memorization and leaves less room for discussion and criticism when compared to Western education. The quality of teaching at HEIs attached to specific central ministries, such as the Ministry of Agriculture, is directly monitored by the respective ministries. There were 10,200 vocational secondary schools nationwide in that year. In higher education, the language of instruction is predominantly Mandarin, although English-taught programs and courses are becoming increasingly common in an attempt to internationalize China’s higher education system. Another concern is that Chinese students shape academic discourse in Australia in a negative way with controversies over topics like China’s territorial disputes playing out on campuses, sometimes resulting in academic self-censorship to avoid conflicts. Clearly, these areas are valuable for pupils’ general well-being and there is a growing evidence … Between 1998 and 2008, the number of vocational secondary education schools dropped by 35 percent, and another 27 percent by 2016. Students usually take the test in the final year of high school after preparing for it the entire year, but it’s possible to retake the exams indefinitely after graduation from high school. In addition, provincial accreditation committees are tasked with evaluating and auditing vocational HEIs and private institutions within their jurisdictions under central guidelines. Needless to say, this massification of higher education has been accompanied by an exponential growth in the number of HEIs. Most are directly overseen by the MOE in Beijing or other central government bodies. All these developments cast doubt on the future growth of Chinese student enrollments in the U.S., particularly since other countries like Australia and Canada are actively vying for Chinese students. Studying overseas with the goal of eventually immigrating to Western countries is another motivator. PE course is the main form of PE in educational institutions of different types and at different levels. The Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination (HKCEE), awarded by the Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority (HKEAA), was taken after five years of secondary education and provided access to non-university post-secondary education. By some accounts, students from Anhui province, for instance, in 2012 had a 40 times lower chance of being admitted into Beijing universities than local students. Many of these agents provide prospective international students with valuable services, such as identifying appropriate institutions and programs, submitting transcripts, or sometimes even providing training for language tests. The foreign language taught at junior high schools is most commonly English, though schools may also offer Japanese or Russian, and students at some schools have the option of learning a second foreign language. 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