Table 6. Mortality rates, including infant mortality, were assessed over the period 1958–1989 in offspring of the population that was not resettled, but continued living on the EURT territories with low deposition density. The uncertainty in individual radiation doses from exposures within the EURT is due to several factors including: uncertainty in the radionuclide composition of the release; variability in deposition across each village; individual variability in intakes; individual variability in biokinetics and dosimetry etc. Table 1 presents the latest estimates of radionuclide composition of the release used for reconstruction of doses in the EURT area. The ERR of solid cancer mortality for the members of the EURTС based on the linear model with 5- and 10-year latent period was 0.057/100 mGy, p = 0.046 and 0.067/100 mGy, p = 0.03, respectively. The East Ural Reserve, on the territory of which only scientific observations are allowed, was set up at the head part of the trace (i.e., closest to Mayak PA) with 90Sr soil deposition of 100–600 Ci km−2. Protective measures for the population comprised both emergency and scheduled activities. This work has been funded by the Federal Medical and Biological Agency of the Russian Federation. The nuclear-arms race of the Cold War era, particularly when “fought” between the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, nearly brought humanity to the brink of disaster. The distribution of causes of death is given in table 5 [22]. Schematic map of 90Sr deposition in EURT territories in 1957 in Chelyabinsk Oblast (according to [8, 12]). Ten to twelve years after the accident (1967–1969) the analysis of the prevalence of diseases in 12 372 EURT residents (including 3961 persons aged under 15) and 12 723 unexposed people, out of whom 4071 were children and teenagers aged under 15, confirmed the absence of an influence of exposure on somatic health status. Cancer mortality structure in the EURTC members as of 31.12.2006. Leukemia mortality rates over a 30-year period after the accident did not differ from those in the group of unexposed people. The Russian spy Litvinenko, and others have been assassinated using radiation poisoning (Pu210). Even so, some Western authorities doubted that a storage accident could have had such severe consequences, and others offered an alternative theory wherein a distant nuclear weapons test had produced the radioactivity. The thermal explosion of tank #14 occurred on 29 September 1957 at 4:20 pm local time. Each full tank contained 70–80 tons of radioactive wastes, mainly in the form of nitrate compounds. The emergency nature of the situation did not allow the timely formation of control groups, which made it difficult to interpret the results obtained while observing people affected by radiation exposure. The terrain in which the radioactive trace was formed is forest-steppe with a uniform relief. Since autumn 1957, in the rest of the territory quality inspection of food products and fodder with partial replacement of contaminated products was started to decrease the absorbed dose from internal exposure sources. Until 1989 the Soviet government refused to acknowledge that the event had occurred, even though about 9,000 square miles (23,000 square km) of land were contaminated, more than 10,000 people were evacuated, and probably hundreds died from the effects of radioactivity. Cow's milk was mainly contaminated due to the transfer soil→grass (cow's forage)→milk, and the 90Sr + 90Y contribution to the total activity of milk exceeded 80%. The pace of the Soviet nuclear program was so hurried and its technology so new that conditions were chronically unsafe for both workers and neighbours. 1). So the proper observation is the most important issue in this matter. In the cancer incidence structure of females, the most frequent were cancer of the reproductive organs, 25.7%. The accident caused surface contamination of food and fodder. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI. Kyshtym disaster: | | ||| | Map of the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT): area c... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. In 20% of cases, the cancer diagnosis was only clinically confirmed or confirmation is unavailable (this refers mainly to the data which were obtained retrospectively). The area of this zone was limited to an isoline of 2–4 Ci km−2 for 90Sr. There are also a few large virgin meadow tracts, and a number of lakes within the contaminated area (figure 1). Inhabitants of the region have suffered increased rates of cancer, deformities, and other major health problems. During the first few years after the accident, medical examination was piecemeal and could not cover all exposed persons, which was explained by the large number of people exposed due to the accident, the sudden development of the radiation situation, and inadequate preparedness of medical institutions for a radiation accident. Dose-conversion factors representing absorbed doses in tissues and organs per unit intake for non-strontium radionuclides were based on the models from ICRP Publication 67 [18]. (C69-C80) Other and unspecified sites, including brain tumor D43; (С00- C80) Total solid, including brain tumor of uncertain behavior (D 43), (C81-C90) Malignancies of lymphoid tissue, (D37-D48) Neoplazms of uncertain/unknown behavior, excluding D43, (C17, С19-C26) Other sites within the digestive organs, (C30-C32, C37-C39) Other organs of respiratory tract, (C53-C54) Corpus uteri and unspecified sites, (C51, C52, C55-C58) Other female genital organs, (C64-C68) Bladder and other urinary organs, (C69-С72, С74-C80) Other not specified sites and brain tumor D43, (С00-С43, C45-80) Total solid, including brain tumor D43. The unit Ci km–2 (37 kBq m−2) of 90Sr was used in the official maps of radionuclide deposition and in the procedures of dose calculations for residents of the contaminated area. In 1957 Mayak was the site of the Kyshtym disaster, which at the time was the worst nuclear accident in history. We evaluated potential modification of the dose response by various non-radiation factors, with the use of a linear model of ERR. For more than a year the tank’s contents grew steadily hotter from radioactive decay, reaching a temperature of about 660 °F (350 °C) by September 29, 1957, when the tank exploded with a force equivalent to at least 70 tons of TNT. Risk analysis was performed with the use of individualized estimates of absorbed doses to organs over the whole follow-up period, calculated based on the improved TRDS [12, 14, 15]. Among diseases of the endocrine system, nutritional deficiencies and metabolic disorders (ICD-9 class 3) rachitis or its residual effects were most often diagnosed. The Kyshtym Disaster of 1957: The largest nuclear disaster we’ve never heard of. The cellular composition of the peripheral blood was within agreed standards [4]. 2 MCi (74 PBq) spread beyond the Mayak PA site to form the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT). Increased infectious disease incidence was observed in the group with the highest exposure dose. The number of person-years at risk was 437 719. After the Second World War, the Soviet Union started constructing several hidden atomic facilities throughout the country. In 1967 a strong wind raised the dangerous radioactive silt from the shallow banks of the Karachay Lake. Vital status was unknown for 3512 (16%) cohort members. Cancer incidence structure by sites in EURTC members. To estimate the potential effect of differences in doses accumulated in bone and colon on the incidence risk value for all solid cancers taken together, we performed the analysis of solid cancer incidence risk excluding cases of bone and colon cancer. This allowed extrapolation of data from the reference villages to those villages where detailed studies have not been conducted. Absorbed doses in human organs were calculated by combining dose rates in air per unit deposition density, typical life patterns and shielding, as well as conversion factors from dose in air to dose in organs. The exposed population registry, individual doses of the exposed population as well as the medical-dosimetric database of the URCRM, which comprises the results of long-term dosimetric monitoring and medical follow-up of the population, form the basis for arranging medical assistance to the EURT population and for the analysis of the long-term health effects in the population. Also, a pure quadratic model fits the data as well as the linear model, point value of ERR at 100 mGy for the quadratic model was 0.013; (95% CI: 0.001; 0.028; p = 0.03) [22]. Thus, 90Sr entry into plants and agricultural products from soil decreased with time mainly due to vertical migration of radionuclides along the soil profile [4]. A program of emergency activities to mitigate the consequences of the explosion was approved on 2 October 1957. The following pathways of public exposure were distinguished: external exposure and inhalation of the radioactivity from the plume at the time of its passage; external exposure from radioactively contaminated soil and surfaces of buildings and trees; internal exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. This site uses cookies. The composite of these factors is a lognormal distribution for reference adults with geometric standard deviation of about 2.7, of which a portion is shared and a portion unshared between members of the cohort [12]. aCMR—crude mortality rate by 105 person-years. Cancer incidence data by site are provided in table 7 [27]. Maximum values of dose for the whole EURTC reached 0.6 Gy for stomach and 1.9 Gy for bone marrow. Therefore, only 27 cancer cases out of 1426 could be associated with accidental radiation exposure of the EURT population. Most of the parameters of peripheral blood cellular composition in visually healthy children, examined during the first 4–10 months after the accident, were within the expected range for their age. The external control group, 19 375 persons in number, was formed from the population residing on non-contaminated territories of the same administrative raions of the Chelyabinsk Oblast as the exposed population, and was comparable to the main group in terms of sex, age, and ethnicity. Characteristics of solid cancer cases, person-years and crude mortality rates depending on sex, age, ethnicity, resettlement, and follow-up period are given in table 6. The following diseases were registered most frequently: pertussis, measles, mumps, acute upper respiratory infections, bronchitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, as well as acute skin infections (pyoderma and furunculosis). The significance was slightly higher with a 10-year latent period (p = 0.046 and p = 0.03, respectively). Analysis based on maximum-likelihood ratio test did not indicate that a linear-quadratic model fits any better than a simple linear model (p > 0.5). Over the period 1958–1960, 952 children aged under 14 were examined in the course of visiting medical examinations. The percentage of breast cancer in total cancer incidence is significantly higher than that in mortality (as not all the cases lead to death) and makes up 7%. The percentage of this cause of death as a proportion of all deaths during the first years after the accident reached 52.9%–62.4%, and then it decreased greatly. A monograph published in 2001 provided information on radio-ecological and medical effects of the accident obtained over a longer period of follow-up [4]. The incident was later covered up and the contaminated area turned into an off-limits "nature reserve". The latter are excluded from the analysis of cancer incidence in the majority of international studies due to the fact that cancer registries may have incomplete data on non-melanoma skin cancers as patients with basalioma are excluded from the follow-up and the cancer registry after a 5-year remission. Scheduled activities included: further relocation of the residents, decontamination of settlements and agricultural areas, development of a radiation monitoring system, including quality inspection of foodstuffs and fodder, as well as reorganization and reorientation of commercial farms. The TRDS calculates doses from the major exposure pathways: external exposure in the areas along the Techa River and in the region of the EURT; and internal exposure from intakes acquired in the Techa River and EURT villages. The society offers professional development events, access to journal of Radiological protection, either in copy! 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